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Feminist Research in Music Education

A Summary of Gender Research in Music Education to 1997

Gender issues have been on the agenda of music education researchers since the 1960s, reflecting a field of inquiry that has developed considerably over the last 40 years. Initially, researchers looked at sex differences in musical abilities such as singing, motor, rhythm and listening skills. Researchers expanded this investigation to include sex-stereotyping of instrument and music career choices, finding critical disparity between what boys and girls considered appropriate and desirable. From these studies, the profession branched out into numerous areas of inquiry to investigate further sex-based preferences and skill development, and to develop materials that were responsive to gender issues arising from the research.

To understand how sex-stereotyping might be a learned phenomena, researchers studied the representation of males and females in musical materials and text books at all levels. Several areas proved problematic such as the tendency for elementary text books to present women as singers, flutists, and pianists (roles stereotypically perceived as feminine) more often than as composers, percussionists, or brass players (roles stereotypically perceived as masculine). Other researchers criticized college level textbooks for their preoccupations with males to the exclusion of women s contributions. Teachers paralleled this criticism with scrutiny of lyrics to standard classroom music repertoire as being sexist and encouraging narrow, stereotypical images of both girls and boys.

To remedy these negative stereotypes, researchers developed materials for the inclusion of and a concentration on women in music. In addition, numerous articles in research and teacher education journals emphasized topics such as women composers; conductors; performers in the classical, jazz, and popular genres; and music academics. These articles include introducing the profession to women left out of history books, the working conditions of women in music, and issues concerning how, historically, women have been excluded from influential and professional levels of music making.

Another site for critique has been classroom expectations and interactions both between teachers and students, and between peers in general music and performance ensembles. Research suggests that although girls have better attitudes toward music, boys are more frequently rewarded for their accomplishments. Other research queries have found choral directors preoccupied with low male enrolment and the subsequent perceived repertoire constraints, while band directors tend to maintain a mostly male constituency in the position of band director.

With the establishment and success of Women's Studies programs at universities came the addition of gender studies to most academic disciplines. This wide-spread interest created various forms of theorizing based on women's experiences in the world historically, socially, philosophically, scientifically and anthropologically. Further, several strands of feminist theorizing have developed including liberal, social, radical, critical, and post-modern forms of feminism. Each of these political positions have in common a concern for how gender is constructed and the material effects these constructions have on the lives of women, but they differ as they analyze causes and prescribe strategies for liberation. The strength of supporting numerous critiques is that it escapes how narrowly patriarchal constructions of social reality portrays women and men, and seeks to better represent how diversely women and men experience the world. In this sense feminism has resisted becoming a totalizing discourse prescribing only one correct answer, as in the case of patriarchy.

Especially since the 1990s, feminist theory has become part of gender research in music education and has been used in three areas of inquiry:

1. gender studies,

2. feminist pedagogy, and

3. feminist critique.

Gender studies have focused on decoding subtle interactions and hidden curricula in order to construct and understand how music participants have learned roles that are clearly delineated by gender that then create unequal educational and musical opportunities. For example, researchers have studied gendered interactions such as:

  • ensembles that perform music primarily by male composers and about male experiences;
  • general music classes where girls appear to be more attracted to music that is melodious, acoustic and performed by female singers while boys tend to be attracted to music that is rhythmic, electronic, and performed by males; or
  • the music profession that sorts teachers according to gender so that women are primarily classroom music teachers and men are primarily secondary instrumental instructors.

    Second, feminist pedagogy exists in as many forms as feminist theory, and therefore also finds strength in diversity and contradictions. Issues taken up in the various forms of feminist pedagogy include:

  • positive presentation of women in educational materials to be internalized by both boys and girls, anti-competitive classrooms (seen as qualities of patriarchy);
  • providing equal access to all experiences and opportunities; and,
  • developing community and a safe environment where women can find a strong voice and men can find voices alternative to those encouraged through patriarchy.

    The third category, feminist criticism, is based on the notion that men and women have different experiences in the world. Women operate in different spaces, occupations and cultures from men. Furthermore, the institutions and labour market in which women participate are not the same as those in which men participate; there are few positions of power in the female world. Given that men, primarily, have had the privilege to create policy, theories and analysis, it is no surprise that a woman, operating from a different set of experiences in an otherwise shared world, might come up with a different analysis. Generated by women operating from different parts of the profession than men, feminist critiques of the philosophy of music education have provided the profession with alternative viewpoints.

    In summary, gender research is a developing area of interest in music education. This subject has been the topic of several journals and conferences:

  • The Music Educators Journal (1979) had a special focus on women in American music;
  • the American Musicological Society meetings (1988) included a special focus on feminist scholarship and its implications for musicology and teaching while the
  • British Journal of Music Education (1988) was the first research journal to focus on the topic of gender and music education;
  • The Music Educators Journal (1992) dedicated another entire issue to women in music; and
  • The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning (1994) dedicated a double issue to sex equity in music education, while the
  • Philosophy of Music Education Review (1994) had a special issue on feminist perspectives in music education.

    Selected Bibliography of Relevant Resources and Research

    Abeles, H. F., & Porter, S. Y. (1978). The sex-stereotyping of musical instruments. Journal of Research in Music Education, 26(2), 65-75.

    Ali, L. (1992). Foxcore, my ass: Grrrls, guitars, and the gender dialectic. Option 44, May-June, 40-44.

    Allen, S. F. (1992). Sing the songs of women composers. Music Educators Journal, 78(7), 48-51.

    Atterbury, B. W. (1994). What do women want? A review of women of academe: Outsiders in the sacred grove by Nadya Aisenberg and Mona Harrington. The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, IV-V(4, 1), 100-104.

    Auslander, P. (2004). I wanna be your man: Suzi Quatro's musical androgyny. Popular Music, 23(1), 1-16.

    Barongan, C. (1995). The influence of misogynous rap music on sexual aggression against women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19(2), 195-207.

    Barry, N. H. (1992). The effects of practice strategies, individual differences in cognitive style, and gender upon technical accuracy and musicality of student instrumental performance. Psychology of Music, 20(2), 112-123.

    Bayley, J. G. (2004). The instrumental selection process. Canadian Winds/Vents canadiens: Journal of the Canadian Band Association, 3(1), 13-16.

    Bayley, J. G. (2004). The procedure by which teachers prepare students to choose a musical instrument. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 22(2), 23-34.

    Bayton, M. (1992). Out on the margins: Feminism and the study of popular music. Women: A Cultural Review 3.1 (Summer), 51-59.

    Becker, A. (1990). New lyrics by women: A feminist alternative. Journal of Popular Culture 24.1 (Summer), 1-21.

    Best, D. L., Williams, J. E., Cloud, J. M., Davis, S., Robertson, L. S., Edwards, J. R., Giles, H., & Fowles, J. (1997). Development of sex-trait stereotypes among young children in the United States, England, and Ireland. Child Development, 48, 1375-1384.

    Boldizar, J. P. (1991). Assessing sex typing and androgyny in children: The Children's Sex Role Inventory. Developmental Psychology, 27(3), 505-515.

    Bowers, J. M. (1990). Feminist scholarship and the field of musicology: I. College Music Symposium, 29, 81-91.

    Bowers, J. M. (1991). Feminist scholarship and the field of musicology: II. College Music Symposium, 30, 1-13.

    Boyce-Tillman, J. (1993). Women’s ways of knowing. British Journal of Music Education, 10(3), 153-61.

    Brittin, R. V. (1991). The effect of overtly categorizing music on preference for popular music styles. Journal of Research in Music Education, 39(2), 143-151.

  • Bruce, R., & Kemp, A. (1993). Sex-stereotyping in children’s preferences for musical instruments. British Journal of Music Education, 10, 213-217.

    Burnard, P. (2000). Examining experiential differences between improvisation and composition in children’s music making. British Journal of Music Education, 17(3), 227-245.

    Caputo, V. (1994). Add technology and stir: Music, gender, and technology. The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, IV-V(4,1), 85-90.

    Christenson, P.G. (1988). Genre and gender in the structure of music preferences. Communication Research, 15(3), 282-301.

    Clawson, M. A. (1999). When women play the bass: Instrument specialization and gender interpretation in alternative rock music. Gender and Society, 13(2), 193-210.

    Coeyman, B. (1996). Applications of feminist pedagogy to the college music major curriculum: An introduction to the issues. College Music Symposium, 36, 73-90.

    Colley, A. (1994). Gender effects in school subject preferences: A research note. Educational Studies, 20(1), 13-18.

    Conti, R., Collins, M. A., & Picariello, M. L. (2001). The impact of competition on intrinsic motivation and creativity: Considering gender, gender segregation and gender role orientation. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(8), 1273-1289.

    Conway, C. (2000). Gender and musical instrument choice. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, No. 146, 1-16.

    Cook, S. C. (1990). Women, womens studies, music and musicology: Issues of pedagogy and scholarship. College Music Symposium, 29, 93-100.

    Cooper, N. A. (1995). Childrens singing accuracy as a function of grade level, gender, and individual versus unison singing. Journal of Research in Music Education, 43(3), 222-31.

    Cornell, H. L. (1979). Songs for children by women. Music Educators Journal, 65(5), 50-53.

    Costley, C. (1993). Music and gender at key stage three (11-14): An action research project. British Journal of Music Education, 10, 197-203.

    Davidson, J. W., Moore, D. G., Sloboda, J. A., & Howe, M. J. A. (1998). Characteristics of music teachers and the progress of young instrumentalists. Journal of Research in Music Education, 46(1), 141-160.

    Davidson, J. W, Howe, M. J. A., Moore, D.G., & Sloboda, J. A. (1996). The role of parental influence in the development of musical performance. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 399-412.

    DeLorenzo, L. C. (1992). An interview with Ellen Taaffe Zwilich. Music Educators Journal, 78(7), 46-47.

    Delzell, J. K. (1994). Variables affecting the gender-role stereotyping of high school band teaching positions. The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, IV-V(4, 1), 77-84.

    Delzell, J. K., & Leppla, D. A. (1992). Gender association of musical instruments and preferences of fourth-grade students for selected instruments. Journal of Research in Music Education, 40(2), 93-103.

    Eakor, V. L. (1994). The gendered origins of the American musician. The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, IV-V(4, 1), 48-64.

    Elliot, C. A. (1995). Race and gender as factors in judgements of musical performance. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, No. 127, 50-55.

    Ellis, M. C. (1995). Field dependence-independence and college nonmusic majors description and identification of music excerpts. Journal of Research in Music Education, 43(4), 298-312.

    Endres, K. L. (1984). Sex role standards in popular music. Journal of Popular Culture 18.1 (Summer), 9-18.

    Fortney, P. M. (1993). A study of middle school band students instrument choices. Journal of Research in Music Education, 41(1), 28-39.

    Frable, D. E. S. (1989). Sex typing and gender ideology: Two facets of the individual's gender psychology that go together. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(1), 95-108.

    Garr, G. G. (1993). Women in rock ’92. The Advocate, (12 Jan), 76-79.

    Gates, J. T. (1989). A historical comparison of public singing by American men and women. Journal of Research in Music Education, 28(3), 167-175.

    Gergis, S. (1993). The power of women musicians in the ancient and near East: The roots of prejudice. British Journal of Music Education, 10, 189-196.

    Giordano, T., Pool, J., Rubin, A., Sacre, E., Samson, V., Sudhalter, C., & Tick, J. (1980). Is there a feminist aesthetic in music? Heresies, 10, 20-24.

    Goodman, L. (1980). Sexist songs: Out of tune with the times. Teacher, 98(3), 8.

    Gould, E. S. (1992). Gender-specific occupational role models: Implications for music educators. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 11(1), 8-12.

    Gould, E. S. (1992). Music education in historical perspective: Status, non-musicians, and the role of women. College Music Symposium, 32, 10-18.

    Gould, E. S. (1994). Getting the whole picture: The view from here. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 2(2), 92-98.

    Gould, E. S., & Matthews, C. L. (1999). Weavings: Native women's music, poetry, and performance as resistance. Women and Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture, 3 (fall), 70-78.

    Green, L. (1994). Gender, musical meaning, and education. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 2(2), 99-105.

    Green, Lucy. (1993). Music, gender and education: A report on some exploratory research. British Journal of Music Education, 10, 219-253.

    Griswold, P. A., & Chorback, D. A. (1981). Sex-role associations of music instruments and occupations by gender and major. Journal of Research in Music Education, 29(1), 57-62.

    Haack, P.A. (1998). Gender and age associations in music: A semantic matrix. Dialogue in Instrumental Music Education, 22, 98-107.

    Hanley, B. (1998). Gender in secondary music education in British Columbia. British Journal of Music Education, 15(1), 51-69.

    Hargreaves, D. (1995). Effects of age, gender, and training on musical preferences of British secondary school students. Journal of Research in Music Education, 43(3), 242-50.

    Harrison, A.C., & O’Neill, S.A. (2003). Preferences and children’s use of gender stereo-typed knowledge about musical instruments: Making judgments about other children’s preferences. Sex Roles, 49(7/8), 389-400.

    Harrison, S. D. (2001). Why Boys Limit Musical Choices. GRIME Newsletter, 10(1).

    Hinely, M. (1984). The uphill climb of women in American music: conductors and composers. Music Educators Journal, 70(9), 42-45.

    Hodas, G. R. (1991). Using original music to explore gender and sexuality with adolescents. Journal of Poetry and Therapy, 4(4), 205-20.

    Howe, S.W (2004). Elsie Shawe, Music Supervisor in St. Paul, Minnesota (1898-1933). Journal of Research in Music Education, 52(4), 328-342.

    Howe, S. W. (2001). An historical perspective on contributions of American women music educators. Journal of Historical Research in Music Education, 22(2), 147-58.

    Howe, S. W. (1999). Leadership in MENC: The female tradition. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 141, 59-65.

    Howe, S. W. (1998). Reconstructing the history of music education from a feminist perspective. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 6(2), 96-106.

    Howe, S. W. (1995). The role of women in the introduction of western music in Japan. Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education, 16(2), 81-97.

    Howe, S. W. (1993-94). Women music educators in Japan during the Meiji period. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 119(Winter 1993-94), 101-109.

    Humphreys, J. T. (1997). Sex and geographic representation in two music education history books. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 131(Winter), 67-86.

    Instruments preference by gender and age in 1994. (1994). Teaching Music, 2(2), 10.

    Johnsen, G. (1992). An interview with Rebecca Bower. Music Educators Journal, 78(7), 39-41.

    Johnson, J. D. (1995). Differential gender effects of exposure to rap music on African American adolescents acceptance of teen dating violence. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 33(7-8), 597-605.

    Jordan-DeCarbo, J. (1982). Same/different discrimination techniques, readiness training, pattern treatment, and sex or aural discrimination and singing of tonal patterns by kindergartners. Journal of Research in Music Education, 27(3), 173-184.

    Kemp, A. E. (1985). Psychological androgyny in musicians. Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin, 38(2), 36-42.

    Kemp, A. (1982). The personality structure of the musician: III. The significance of sex differences. Psychology of Music, 10(1), 48-58.

    Kemp, A. (1981). The personality structure of the musician: II. Identifying a profile of traits for the composer. Psychology of Music, 9(2), 69-75.

    Koza, J. E. (1994). Big boys don’t cry (or sing): Gender, misogyny, and homophobia in college choral methods texts. The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, IV-V(4, 1), 48-64.

    Koza, J. E. (1994). Females in 1988 middle school music textbooks: An analysis of illustrations. Journal of Research in Music Education, 42(2), 145-71.

    Koza, J. E. (1993). The missing males and other gender issues in music education: Evidence from the Music Supervisors Journal, 1914-1924. Journal of Research in Music Education, 41(3), 212-32.

    Koza, J. E. (1992). Picture this: Sex equity in textbook illustrations. Music Educators Journal, 78(7), 28-33.

    Koza, J. E. (1990). Music instruction in the nineteenth century: views from Godeys Ladys Book. 1830-77. Journal of Research in Music Education, 38(4), 245-57.

    Lamb, R. (1997). Music trouble: Desire, discourse, and the pedagogy project. Canadian University Music Review, J. Deaville (Editor for interdisciplinary studies theme issue), 18(1), 84-98.

    Lamb, R. (1996). Discords: Feminist pedagogy in music education. Theory into Practice, 35(2), 124-31.

    Lamb, R. (1996). Lesbian teaching/teaching lesbian. In M. Mockus & C. Whitesell (Eds.), GLSG Newsletter, 6(1), 15-16.

    Lamb, R. (1994). Aria senza accomppagnamento: A woman behind the theory. The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, IV-V(4, 1), 5-21.

    Lamb, R. (1994). Feminism as critique in philosophy of music education. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 2(2), 59-74.

    Lamb, R. (1993). The possibilities of/for feminist criticism in music education. British Journal of Music Education, 10(3), 169-180.

    Lamb, R. (1990). Are there gender issues in school music? Canadian Music Educator, 31(6), 9-14.

    Lawson, K. D. (1984). A woman’s place is at the podium. Music Educators Journal, 70(9), 46-49.

    Le Blanc, A., & Jin, Y. C. (1999). Effect of age, country and gender on music listening preferences. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 141, 72-76.

    LeBlanc, A., & Sherrill, C. (1986). Effect of vocal vibrato and performers sex on childrens musical preference. Journal of Research in Music Education, 31(1), 269-282.

    Legette, R M. (1998). Causal beliefs of public school students about success and failure in music. Journal of Research in Music Education, 46(1), 102-111.

    Lessons and teachers as students see them. (1995). Clavier, 34, 10-15.

    Lindeman, C. A. (1992). Teaching about women musicians: Elementary classroom strategies. Music Educators Journal, 78(7), 56-59.

    Livingston, C. (1997). Women in music education in the United States: Names mentioned in history books. Journal of Research in Music Education, 45(1), 130-144.

    Madura, P. (1996). Relationships among vocal jazz improvisation achievement, jazz theory knowledge, imitative ability, musical experience, creativity and gender. Journal of Research in Music Education, 44(3), 252-267.

    Martinez, T. A. (1994). Popular music in the classroom: Teaching race, class, and gender with popular culture. Teaching Sociology, 22(3), 260-65.

    McCartney, A. (1996). The ambiguous relation/le rapport ambigu. Part II. Contact!, 9(2), 29-47.

    McCartney, A. (1996). Women composers of electroacoustic music in Canada. Array, 16(1), 15-18.

    McCartney, A. (1995). A prelude to electroacoustic gender issues. Contact!, 8(2), 68-74.

    McCartney, A. (1995). Inventing images: Constructing and contesting gender in thinking about electroacoustical music. Leonardo Music Journal, 5, 57-66.

    McCartney, A. (1995). Le rapport ambigu/the ambiguous relation. Part I. Contact!, 9(1), 43-58.

    McCord, K. (1986). All women jazz groups. Jazz Research Papers, 6, 134-140.

    McCord, K. (1986). History of women in jazz. Jazz Educators Journal, 18, 15-19.

    McCord, K. (1985). The Conceptualization of women in jazz. Jazz Research Papers, 5, 128-139.

    McGee, K. (1994). Women in jazz: An annotated bibliography. Jazz Educators Journal, 27, 35-41.

    McKeage, K.M. (2004) Gender and Participation in High School and College Instrumental Jazz Ensembles. Journal of Research in Music Education, 52(4), 343-356.

    McKeage, K. M. (2002). Where are all the girls: Undergraduate women in instrumental jazz? Gender, Education, Music and Society Journal, 1, Retrieved May 20, 2002, from

    Mizener, C. P. (1993). Attitudes of children toward singing and choir participation and assessed singing skill. Journal of Research in Music Education, 41(3), 233-45.

    Monson, I. (1995). The problem with white hipness: Race, gender, and cultural conception in jazz historical discourse. Journal of the American Musicological Society, 48(3), 396-422.

    Morton, C. (1994). Feminist theory and the displaced music curriculum: Beyond the add and stir projects. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 2(2), 106-121.

    Neuls-Bates, C. (1980). The status of women in college music: A statistical report (2). Boulder, CO: College Music Society Report.

    Nett, E. (1990). ‘Women in rock’ revisited: A response to Sawchuck's critique. Atlantis, 14(Spring, 2), 77-80.

    Nett, E., & Harding, D. (1984). Women in rock music. Atlantis 10.1 (Fall), 61-76.

    Nicol, J. J., & Long, B. C. (1996). Creativity and perceived stress of female music therapists and hobbyists. Creativity Research Journal, 9(1) 1-10.

    North, A.C., & Hargreaves, D.J. (1999). Music and adolescent identity. Music Education Research, 1, 75-92.

    Oglsebee, F. W. (1999). Suzi Quatro: A prototype in the archsheology of rock. Popular Music and Society, 23, 29-39.

    O’Toole, P. (1997). Examining the political projects of four pedagogies: progressive, humanistic, critical and feminist. Dialogues in Instrumental Music Education, 21(2), 126-141.

    O’Toole, P. (1997). What have you taught your female singers lately? Choral Cues, 27(2), 12-15.

    O’Toole, P. (1994). I sing in a choir but I have no voice! The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, IV-V(4,1), 65-77.

    Palmquist, J. E., & Payne, B. (1992). The inclusive instrumental library: Works by women. Music Educators Journal, 78(7), 52-55.

    Payne, B. (1996). The gender gap: Women on music faculties in American colleges and universities 1993-1994. College Music Symposium, 36, 91-102.

    Periano, J. A. (1992). ‘Rip her to shreds’: Women’s music according to a butch-femme aesthetic.” Repercussions 1 (Spring),19-47.

    Pegley, K. (2000). "Simple economics?" Images of gender and nationality on Much Music (Canada) and MTV (United States). Women & Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture, 4, 1-17.

    Pegley, K. (1992). Much media: Towards an understanding of the impact of videos on Canadian pre-adolescent identities. Canadian Folk Music Journal/Revue de Musique Folklorique Canadienne, 20, 33-39.

    Pickering, S., & Repacholi, B. (2001). Modifying children’s gender-typed musical instrument preferences: The effects of gender and age. Sex Roles, 45(9/10), 623-643.

    Poole, J. (1979). America’s women composers: Up from the footnotes. Music Educators Journal, 65(5), 28-41.

    Porter, L. (1984). She wiped all the men out. Music Educators Journal, 71(1), 43-52.

    Porter, L. (1984). You can’t get up there timidly: Jazzwomen part II. Music Educators Journal, 71(2), 42- 51.

    Porter, S.Y., & Abeles, H. F. (1979). So your daughter wants to be a drummer? Music Educators Journal, 63(7), 46-49.

    Pucciani, D. (1993). Sexism in music education. Survey of the literature. Music Educators Journal, 70(1), 49-51, 68-71, 73.

    Rife, N.A. Shnek, Z.M., Lauby, J.L., & Lapidus, L.B.(2001). Children’s satisfaction with private music lessons. Journal of Research in Music Education, 49(1), 21-32.

    Reimer, B. (1995). Gender, feminism, and aesthetic education: Discourses of inclusion and empowerment. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 3(2), 107-24.

    Richardson, C. (1992). The improvised lives of women in music education. Music Educators Journal, 78(7), 34-38.

    Sawchuck, K. A. (1989). Towards a feminist analysis of 'women in rock music': Patti Smith's 'Gloria.' Atlantis 14.2 (Spring), 44-54.

    Schleuter, S. L. (1985). The relationship of grade level and sex differences to certain rhythmic responses of primary grade children. Journal of Research in Music Education, 33(1), 23-29.

    Schleuter, S. L. (1978). Effects of certain lateral dominance traits, music aptitude, and sex differences with instrumental music achievement. Journal of Research in Music Education, 26(1), 22-31.

    Schleuter, S. L., & Schleuter, L. J. (1989). The relationship of rhythm response tasks, and PMMA scores with music training, grade level, and sex among K-three students. Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin, 100, 1-13.

    Schleuter, S. L., & Schleuter, L. J. (1984). The relationship of grade level and sex differences to certain rhythmic responses of primary grade children. Journal of Research in Music Education, 32(1), 23-29.

    Schmidt, C. P. (1995). Attributions of success, grade level, and gender as factors in choral students perspectives of teacher feedback. Journal of Research in Music Education, 43(4), 313-29.

    Schwartz, K. D., & Fouts, G. T. (2003). Music preferences, personality style, and development issues of adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32(3), 205-213.

    Sherman, Lee. (1995). (The guitarists formerly known as chicks). Guitar, 12(9), 28-33, 56-61.

    Shuter, R. (1979). Unisex or vive la difference? Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin, 59, 102-105.

    Sicoli, M. L. C. (1995). Life factors common to women who write popular songs. Creativity Research Journal, 8(3), 265-267.

    Sinsel, T., Dixon, Jr., W. E., & Blades-Zeller, E. (1997). Psychological sex type and preferences for musical instruments in fourth and fifth graders. Journal of Research in Music Education, 45(3), 390-401.

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    Stremikis, B. A. (2002). The personal characteristics and environmental circumstances of successful women musicians. Creativity Research Journal, 14(1), 85-92.

    Strouse, J. (1995). Gender and family as moderators of the relationship between music video exposure and adolescent sexual permissiveness. Adolescence, 30(119), 505-21.

    Took, K. (1994). The relationship between heavy metal and rap music and adolescent turmoil: Real or artifact? Adolescence, 29(115), 613-21.

    Trollinger, L. M. (1994). Sex/gender research in music education: A review. The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, IV-V(4, 1), 22-39.

    Twersky, L. (1981). The female teenage audience examined. Trouser Press (April), 27-29. [also in E. McDonnell, & A. Powers (Eds.) (1995). Rock she wrote: Women write about rock, pop, and rap. New York: Delta.]

    Weaver, M. A. (1994). A survey of big ten institutions: Gender distinctions regarding faculty ranks and salaries in schools, divisions, and departments of music. The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, IV-V(4, 1), 91-99.

    Weiss, P. (1979). Women in music: A 1978 perspective. Music Educators Journal, 65(5), 43,45.

    Wells, A. (1986). Women in popular music: Changing fortunes from 1955 to 1984. Popular Music and Society, 10(4), 72-85.

    Whellams, F. S. (1973). Musical abilities and sex differences in the analysis of aural-musical capacities. Journal of Research in Music Education, 21(1), 30-39.

    Wills, G. I. (1984). A personality study of musicians working in the popular field. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 359-360.

    Zdinski, S. F. (1992). Relationships among parental involvement, music aptitude, and musical achievement of instrumental music students. Journal of Research in Music Education, 40(2), 114-25.

    Zervoudakes, J. (1994). Gender and musical instruments: Winds of change? Journal of Research in Music Education, 42(1), 58-67.

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