Islamic Feminism: What's in a Name?
By Margot Badran
What's in a name? What's behind a name? What is Islamic feminism? Let me offer a concise definition: it is a feminist discourse and practice articulated within an Islamic paradigm. Islamic feminism, which derives its understanding and mandate from the Qur'an, seeks rights and justice for women, and for men, in the totality of their existence. Islamic feminism is both highly contested and firmly embraced. There has been much misunderstanding, misrepresentation, and mischief concerning Islamic feminism. This new feminism has given rise simultaneously to hopes and to fears. We shall look at who is producing it, where, why and to what end.
Feminisms are produced in particular places and are articulated in local terms. Creators and practitioners of women's history taking shape as a new field in the 1960s, and growing especially the during 1970s and 1980s, attested to a plethora of feminisms that had appeared in different global locations. Sri Lankan scholar Kumari Jayawardena's 1986 path-breaking book Feminisms and Nationalism in the Third World documented feminist movements that had emerged in diverse Asian and Middle Eastern countries and were located within local national liberation and religious reform movements, including movements of Islamic reform. Egypt as we know was a pioneer in articulating feminist thinking and in organising collective feminist activisms. Yet despite a large literature in many languages documenting these globally scattered feminisms, the notion that feminism is Western is still bandied about by those ignorant of history or who perhaps more wilfully employ it in a delegitimising way. Some still speak of a "Western feminism" in essentialist, monolithic, and static terms, belying a certain Occidentalist turn of mind or, perhaps, a political project aimed at adversely "framing" feminism. Feminism, however, is a plant that only grows in its own soil (which is not to suggest than any ideas or movements anywhere are hermetically sealed off).
It is important to distinguish between Islamic feminism as an explicitly declared project, as an analytical term -- and Islamic feminist as a term of identity. Some Muslim women, as seen from the foregoing remarks, describe their project of articulating and advocating the practice of Qur'anically-mandated gender equality and social justice as Islamic feminism. Others do not call this Islamic feminism but describe it as an Islamic project of rereading the Qur'an, women-centered readings of religious texts, or "scholarship-activism" as it is referred to in the 2001 book Windows of Faith edited by Gisela Webb.
The producers and articulaters, or users, of Islamic feminist discourse include those who may or may not accept the Islamic feminist label or identity. They also include so-called religious Muslims (by which is typically meant the religiously observant), so-called secular Muslims (whose ways of being Muslim may be less publicly evident), and non- Muslims. Many Muslims use the adjectives religious and secular to label themselves or each other; other Muslims feel uneasy with these terms. It is important to historicise or contextualise the use of these terms as they do mean different things in different times and places. Also, it needs to be stressed that the terms religious and secular are not hermetically sealed terms; there are, and always have been, imbrications between the two.
Some who engage in the articulation and practice of Islamic feminism assert an Islamic feminist identity from the start. These include contributors to the Iranian journal Zanan, South African exegetes and activists, as well as women belonging to the group "Sisters in Islam" in Malaysia. Others, and these include many of the key producers of Islamic feminist discourse or new gender-sensitive Qur'anic interpretation, have been reluctant to identify themselves as Islamic feminists. Yet, some have changed their positions in more recent years. In the past, Amina Wadud, the African-American Muslim theologian and author of the landmark 1991 book Qur'an and Woman adamantly objected to being labelled an Islamic feminist. Now she shows less concern if others identify her as such; what is important to her is that people understand her work. But, Wadud does bristle when she is slammed as a "Western feminist." In the preface to the 1999 Oxford University Press edition of her book, she decried the pejorative use of both "Western" and "feminist". This devout Muslim woman asks: so what's wrong with being Western? (Let us not forget that there are large and growing numbers of Western Muslims, or Muslims in the West of whom Wadud is one). As for discrediting feminism, she snaps back: "No reference is ever made to the definition of feminism as the radical notion that women are human beings." American based theologian Riffat Hassan of Pakistani origin has also come to accept the Islamic feminist designation, concerned most, like Wadud, that her work be understood.
Globally, English is the major language in which Islamic feminist discourse is expressed and circulated. At the same time, it is expressed in a large number of languages locally. In order to do Qur'anic interpretation and closely read other Islamic religious texts, mastery of Arabic is essential. Yet since English is used as the common language of Islamic feminism, the terminology available in that language is also used. And with the spread of Islamic feminist exegesis, many Arabic loan words are entering English, such as ijtihad, which is fast becoming a household term.
Islamic feminism transcends and destroys old binaries that have been constructed. These included polarities between "religious" and "secular" and between "East" and "West." I stress this because not infrequently there are those who see Islamic feminism, or the recognition of an Islamic feminist discourse, as setting up or reconfirming polarities. In my own public lectures and writings, I have argued that Islamic feminist discourse does precisely the opposite; it closes gaps and demonstrates common concerns and goals, starting with the basic affirmation of gender equality and social justice. Suggestions or allegations of a supposed "clash" between "secular feminism" and "religious feminism" may either be the product of lack of historical knowledge or, as in many cases, a politically motivated attempt to hinder broader solidarities among women.
The pioneering secular feminisms in Egypt and other Arab countries have always had space for religion. The founding Egyptian feminist discourse was anchored simultaneously in the discourse of Islamic reform and that of secular nationalism. Secular feminism (often called just plain feminism) made Islamic arguments in demanding women's rights to education, work, political rights along with secular nationalist, humanitarian (later human) rights, and democratic arguments. When feminists plead for changes in the Muslim Personal Status Code they obviously advanced Islamic arguments.
Islamic feminism advocates women's rights, gender equality, and social justice using Islamic discourse as its paramount discourse, though not necessarily its only one. Islamic feminist discourse in Iran draws upon secular discourses and methodologies to strengthen and extend its claims. Wadud in her women-sensitive interpretation of the Qur'an combines classical Islamic methodologies with new social science tools and secular discourses of rights and justice while retaining a firm and central grounding in Islamic thought.
For many years in my talks and writings, I have discussed how Muslims secular feminists' discourses always included religious discourse and in more recent years, while observing a new Islamic feminism in the making, also noted the imbrications of religious and secular feminisms. My recent article "Locating Feminisms: The Collapse of Secular and Religious Discourses in the Mashriq" published in a special 50th issue of the African Gender Institute's journal Agenda makes this point. Likewise, do Afsaneh Najmabadeh and Ziba Mir-Hosseini in their publications, and Miriam Cooke in her new book Women Claim Islam: Creating Islamic Feminism through Literature, as well as others.
Some of the specific goals are the same as those articulated earlier by secular feminists, such as changes in various national Muslim personal status codes. Other earlier feminist demands have long since been realised in many places. Often, when secular and Islamic feminists try to work together for common goals, they are inhibited or pulled asunder by competing political forces as happened in Yemen following the successful drive by a coalition of a wide spectrum of women to prevent a regressive Personal Status Law from being enacted in 1997.
CONSTITUTING A DISCOURSE:
The basic methodologies of this Islamic feminism are the classic Islamic methodologies of ijtihad (independent investigation of religious sources), and tafsir (interpretation of the Qur'an). Used along with these methodologies are the methods and tools of linguistics, history, literary criticism, sociology, anthropology etc.
In approaching the Qur'an, women bring to their readings their own experience and questions as women. They point out that classical, and also much of post-classical, interpretation was based on men's experiences, male-centered questions, and the overall influence of the patriarchal societies in which they lived.
There are many ayaat (verses) of the Qur'an that seem to declare male/female equality. One is Al- Hujurat: "Oh humankind. We have created you from a single pair of a male and a female and made you into tribes and nations that you may know each other [not that you may despise one another]. The most honored of you in the sight of God is the most righteous of you [the one practicing the most taqwa]." Essentially, ontologically, all human beings are equal, they are only distinguished among themselves on the basis of their rightful practice or implementation of the fundamental Qur'anic principle of justice. Hence there is no contradiction between being a feminist and being a Muslim, once we perceive feminism as an awareness of constraints placed upon women because of gender, a rejection of such limitations placed on women, and efforts to construct and implement a more equitable gender system.
Feminist hermeneutics distinguishes between the universal or timeless basic principles and the particular and contingent, or ephemeral. In the case of the latter, certain practices were allowed in a limited and controlled manner as a way of curtailing behaviours prevalent in the society into which the revelation came while encouraging believers or placing them on the path to fuller justice and equality in their human interactions. Feminist hermeneutics has taken three approaches:
1) revisiting ayaat of the Qur'an to correct false stories in common circulation, such as the accounts of creation and of events in the Garden of Eden that have shored up claims of male superiority;
2) citing ayaat that unequivocally enunciate the equality of women and men;
3) deconstructing ayaat attentive to male and female difference that have been commonly interpreted in ways that justify male domination.
As an example of a new interpretation of the Qur'an, we can look at sura (chapter) four, verse 34. While fundamentally equal, humans have been created biologically different in order to perpetuate the species. Only in particular contexts and circumstances will males and females assume different contingent roles and functions. Woman alone can give birth and nurse, and thus, in this particular circumstance, a husband is enjoined by the Qur'an to provide material support as indicated in 4:34, "Men are responsible for (qawwamun) women because God has given the one more than the other (bima faddala), and because they support them from their means." Wadud-Muhsin, Hassan, Al-Hibri, Naseef, etc. demonstrate that qawwamun conveys the notion of providing for and that the term is used prescriptively to indicate that men ought to provide for women in the context of child- bearing and rearing. It also does not necessarily mean that women cannot provide for themselves in that circumstance. The term qawwamun is not an unconditional statement of male authority and superiority over all women for all time, as traditional male interpreters have claimed. The women exegetes thus show how classical male interpretations have turned the specific and contingent into universals. I do not want to get into an exegetical battle here and now but rather to indicate Islamic feminist interpretative moves. Concerning the masculinist argument that men have authority over women, while deconstructing particular ayaat such as the above, the exegetes also draw attention to other ayaat affirming mutuality of responsibilities as in sura nine, verse 71 of the Qur'an which says that "The believers, male and female, are protectors of one another."
TO WHAT END?
On the other hand, Islamic feminist discourse is equally relevant in predominantly Muslim countries. It constitutes a different statement of the views of the people and their understanding of and attachment to their religion and culture, by attempting a strong and Islamic articulation of gender equality.
In re-examining the Qur'an and hadith, Islamic feminists are making cogent arguments that Islam does not condone wanton violence against women, promoting the notion that violence against women is indeed anti-Islamic. This alone will not put an end to violence but it is one among many weapons against it. The Malaysian group "Sisters in Islam" is one among many that have decried violence against women perpetrated in the name of Islam in a pamphlet they distributed widely. South African Saadiya Shaikh has also completed a study on the subject and is currently looking at notions of sexuality in Islamic religious texts.
Islamic feminism on the whole is more radical than Muslims' secular feminisms have been. Islamic feminism insists on full equality of women and men across the public/private spectrum (secular feminists historically accepted the idea of equality in the public sphere and the notion of complementarianism in the private sphere). Islamic feminism argues that women may be heads of state, leaders of congregational prayer, judges, and muftis. In some Muslim majority countries, Muslim women function as judges, some as prime ministers, and one is a head of state. Thus Islamic feminism stands to benefit us all, Muslims of both sexes, as well as non-Muslims living side by side with Muslims everywhere.
It seems important to focus on the content of Islamic feminism, on its goals, and not to get bogged down with distracting issues about who has the right to think/analyse and to speak. Let us not be too defensive or proprietary about Islamic gender equality, about Islamic feminism. The way I see it, Islamic feminism is for all.
Islamic feminism is a feminist discourse expressly articulated within an Islamic paradigm and behaviours and activisms inspired by it are enacted in Islam's name. Some of the Muslims talking about Islamic feminism were among the producers of the new discourse, or activists inspired by it. Other Muslims, as scholars, writers, journalists and public intellectuals, commented on Islamic feminism, entered debates, and wrote about while standing outside the emergent ranks of Islamic feminists. Moroccan sociologist and writer Fatima Mernissi is a well-known example, and, moreover, one of the earliest to articulate Islamic feminism without taking on an Islamic feminist identity.
Drawing from the history, and more contemporary observation, of Egypt with its pioneering feminist movement, I would like to stress again that Muslim women's feminism has been a feminism within Islam, that is it has articulated itself within an Islamic framework -- though not within that framework alone, since this feminism has also articulated itself within nationalist, humanitarian/human rights, and democratic discourses.
The distinction between (secular) feminist discourse and Islamic feminist discourse is that the latter is a feminism that is articulated within a more exclusively Islamic paradigm (but even this is complicated). This is not to suggest (or create) a binary between secular feminist and Islamic feminist discourse but rather to point to the discursive categories mobilised. There are imbrications of the secular and the religious in both discourses.
Islam and Gender in the Malay World
Compiled by Julie Shackford-Bradley - December, 1996.
General and International Materials
Afkhami, Mahnaz, ed. 1995. Faith and freedom: Women's Human Rights in the Muslim World. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Ahmed, Leila Women and gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate.
Angeles, V. 1996. "Women and Revolution: Philippine Muslim Women's participation in the Moro-National-Liberation Front." Muslim World . Vol. 86, No. 2 (April) 130-147.
Bodran, Margot 1995. Feminists, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Goodwin, Jan 1994. Price of Honor: Muslim Women Lift the Veil of Silence on the Islamic World. Boston: Little Brown.
Hassan, Riffat 1994. "Women's Interpretation of Islam," in Hans Thijssen, ed. Women and Islam in Muslim Socieities. The Hague: Ministry of Foreign Affairs Poverty and Development Program.
Note: Interesting biographical account of her experiences starting out as a Muslim Feminist and a scholar in the US who has returned to Pakistan in order to help begin a Muslim Feminist Movement there. Also covers "The Three Myths" about the Quran and especially, the problematic Surat An-Nisa from which fundamental gender inequality is often inferred by Muslim men.
____________ date? "Feminist Theology and Women in the Muslim World: An Interview with Riffat Hassan" (by Betty Milstead). in Women Living Under Muslim Laws: Riffat Hassan, Selected Articles.. (??)
____________ date? "What does it Mean to be a Muslim Today?" in Women Living Under Muslim Laws: Riffat Hassan, Selected Articles.. (??)
____________ date? "Equal Before Allah?" in Women Living Under Muslim Laws: Riffat Hassan, Selected Articles.. (??)
____________ date? "The Role and Responsibilities of Women in the Legal and Ritual Tradition of Islam ("Shari'ah")." in Women Living Under Muslim Laws: Riffat Hassan, Selected Articles.. (??)
____________ date? "Women in Islam (Al-Quran and AlHadith)." in Women Living Under Muslim Laws: Riffat Hassan, Selected Articles.. (??)
Note: Quotes from the Quran and Hadiths about specific gender topics.
____________ 1982. "On Human Rights and the Quranic Perspective." in Human Rights in Religious Literatures., Arlene Swidler, ed. New York: The Pilgrim Press (51-?).
Lassner, Jacob 1993. Demonizing the Queen of Sheba: Boundaries of Gender and Culture in Postbiblical Judaism and Medieval Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Mernissi, Fatima 1993. The Forgotten Queens of Islam. Minneapolis: Minneapolis University Press.
Note: Includes the Achenese Queens.
_____________ 1991 a. Can we Women Head a Muslim State? Lahore: Simorgh, Women's Resource and Publications Centre.
_____________ 1991 b. The Veil and the Male Elite: A Feminist Interpretation of Women's Rights in Islam. Reading: Addison-Wesley, Co.
_____________ 1987. The Fundamentalist Obsession with Women: A Current Areticulation of Class Conflicts in Modern Muslim Societies. Lahore: Women's Resource and Publications Centre.
_____________ 1986. Women in Muslim Paradise. New Delhi: Kali for Women.
_____________ 1975. Beyond the Veil: Male-Female Dynamics in a Modern Muslim Society. Cambridge: Schenkman Pub.
Moghadar, V.M., ed. Gender and National Identity: Women and Politics in Muslim Societies. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
Murata, Sachiko 1992. The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relations in Islamic Thought. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Muslim World Vol. 86, No. 2 (April, 1996): Women in the Islamic Maelstron. (special edition).
Shahida, Lateef 1990. Muslim Women n India: Political and Private Realities 1890s-1980s. London; New Jersey: Zed.
Thijssen, Hans 1994. Women and Islam in Muslim Socieities. The Hague: Ministry of Foreign Affairs Poverty and Development Program.
Note: An excellent balance of general issues in Islam and the specific: in case studies from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Senegal, Sudan, and Yemen and some specific examples from Indonesia. Materials collected at a 1991 Conference by the Special Programme on Women and Development "on the applicability of policy on Women and Development in developing countries, with special emphasis being placed on the concept of autonomy." (see table of contents).
Yamani, Mai, ed.1996. Feminism and Islam: Legal and Literary Perspectives. New York: New York University Press.
Agustina, Nurul 1994. "Tradisionalisme dan Feminisme." Ulumul Qur'an, Special Edition, No. 5 and 6, Vol. 5, (52-63).
Note: A discussion of four books on Islamic feminism published in 1994, including an Indonesian translation of Fatimah Mernissi's Women in Islam, Amina Wadud Muhsin's Wanita di dalam al-Qur'an (from?), Mazhar ul Haq Khan Wanita Islam Korban Patologi Sosial (from?) and Ashgar Ali Engineer's Hak-hak Perempuan dalam Islam (from India).
Baried, Baroroh 1986. "Islam and the Modernisation of the Indonesian Woman" in Taufik Abdullah and Sharon Siddique, eds. Islam and Society in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Bowan, John 1992. "Elaborating Scriptures: Cain and Abel in gayo Society." Man Vol 27, No. 3. (September) 495.
Bowan, John 1992. "On Scriptual Essentialism and Ritual Variation: Muslim Sacrifice in Sumatra and Morrocco." American Ethnologist. Vol 19, No. 4 (November) 656.
Brenner, S. 1996. "Reconstructing Self and Society: Javanese Muslim Women and "the Veil." American Ethnologist. Vol 23, No. 4 (November) 673-697.
Dialog 1994. "Perempuan dalam Perbincangan" (A Discussion of Women). Ulumul Qur'an, Special Edition, No. 5 and 6, Vol. 5, (42-51).
Note: Contains a discussion of the position of women in Islam in Indonesia which includes the opinions of Syafi'i Anwar, M. Dawan Rahardjo, Marwah Daud Ibrahim, Julia K. Suryakusuma, Gevarina, Nursyahbani Katjasungkana, Lies Marcoes, Wardah Hafidz, and Sita Aripurnami.
Engineer, Ashgar Ali 1994. "Perempuan dalam Syari'ah: Perspektif Feminis dalam Penafsiran Islam." Ulumul Qur'an, Special Edition, No. 5 and 6, Vol. 5, (58-70).
Note: This writer is known as a "Islamic liberation Theologist." He brings together Marxist theory and Islamic texts to argue for the revision of the Syari'ah in order to give women more rights economically and socially.
Hafidz, Wardah 1994. "Feminisme Sebagai Counter-Culture." Ulumul Qur'an, Special Edition, No. 5 and 6, Vol. 5, (p. 5).
_____________ 199? "Misogyny dan Fundamentalisme Islam." in Ulumul Qur'an. (dates?)
Istiadah, 1995. Muslim Women in Contemporary Indonesia: Investigating Paths to Resist the Patriarchal System. Clayton, Australia: Monash University Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Working Paper No. 91.
Note: Highly recommended as an excellent overview of the current situation in Indonesia with a very useful bibliography as well.
Marcoes-Natsir, Lies 1996. "Antara Amal dan Tuntutan Professional di Aisyiyah." Perempuan Indonesia: Dulu dan Kini. Mayling Oey-Gardiner, et al, eds. Jakarta: Gramedia.
Megawangi, Ratna 1994. "Feminisme: Menindas Peran Ibu Rumah-Tangga (Feminism: Crushing the Role of the Housewife). Ulumul Qur'an, Special Edition, No. 5 and 6, (30-41).
Note: A noted anti-feminist, Ratna sees feminism as an import from the West, and argues that feminism will create many problems for women. She does not discuss Islam directly.
Munir, Lily Zakiyah 1994. Islam and the Advancement of Women. Jakarta: Forum for Islam and the Advancement of Women
Note: A Compilation of Papers presented at the Workshop on Islam and the Advancement of Women. Seems like the most useful text from Indonesia that is in English.
Syafruddin, Didin 1994. "Argumen Supremasi Atas Perempuan: Penafsiran Klasik QS al Nisa: 34." Ulumul Qur'an, Special Edition, No. 5 and 6, Vol. 5, (4-10).
Ummi: Identitas Wanita Islam.
Note: A contemporary women's magazine devoted to traditional views of women in Islam, in the style of other (secular) Indonesian women's magazines, featuring such articles as "Mengapa Mesti Membuka Jilbab?" (Why should we reject the Veil?) and "Jangan Coba-coba Dekati Zina!" (Avoid Adultery!).
Wanita Islam Indonesia dalam Kajian Tekstual dan Kontekstual: kumpulan makalah seminar--Jakarta INIS, 1993. (Indonesian Muslim Women in Islamic Texts and Contexts: anthology of conference papers).
Abdurrahman Wahid, "Dilema Budaya Wanita islam Indonesia masa Kini"
Kuntowijoyo: "Arah Pengembangan Organisasi Wanita islam Indonesia: Kemungkinan-Kemungkinannya" (Directions for the Development of Islamic Women`s Organizations: some Possibilities), 129-134.
Wardah Hafidz: "Organisasi Wanita Islam dalam Pengembangannya" (Islamic Women's Organizations in Development) 135-141.
Toeti Heraty Noerhadi: "Dilema Budaya Wanita Islam Masa Kini" (Social Dilemmas for Islamic Women Today), 219-228.
Zaidah Mustapha (1985). "Is Pingit a Variation of Purdah?" An Ethnographic Study on the Loloan Muslims in Bali." Journal Anthropologi dan Sosiologi, 13 (65-91).
Abdullah, Noraini 1986. "Women and Politics of the State." Sojourn, Vol. 1,2 (August) pp?
Abdullah, Rashidah, et al 1995. Battered Women in Malaysia: Prevalence, Problems, and Public Attitudes: A Summary Report of Women's Aid Organization, Malaysia's NationaolResearch on Domestic Violence. Kuala Lumpur: Petaling jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan: Women's Aid Organisation.
Ahmed, Salbiah 1992. "The Judiciary and the Appointment of Women Judges in the Syariah Courts of Malaysia. SAMA. Vol 1, No. 1, 8-13.
Ariffin, Jamilah, ed. 1994. Readings on Women and Development in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Populations Studies Unit, University of Malaya.
Note: index mentions only 10 pages out of 500 under heading of "Islam."
________________, 1992. Poverty Amidst Plenty: Research Findings and the Gender Dimension in Malaysia. Petaling Jaya: Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia: Pelaunduk Publications.
________________, 1991. Women's Studies in Malaysia: An Overview and a Reference Bibliography. Kuala Lumpur: National Population and Family Development Board.
Faisal Haji Othman 1990. "How Muslim Women Have Been Misunderstood by Muslims. Islamiyyat II (25-38).
Note: Theoretical and dealing with Islamic texts, rather than Malaysia specifically.
Gurak, Douglas T 1995. Family Planning and Women's Lives: The Malaysia Case. Ithaca, NY: Dept. of Rural Sociology (New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences).
HAWA (?) 1992. Status and Role of Malaysian Women in Development: A Bibliographical Essay. Kuala Lumpur: Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, Research Report, No 9.
Note: An excellent resource.
ISIS Women's World 1989. "Islam, the Secular State, and Muslim Women in Malaysia." ISIS Women's World, No 21-22 (December) 22-24.
___________________, 1989. "She Could not get a Divorce." ISIS Women's World, No 21-22 (December) 21.
Joned, Ahilemah 1984. "Rape Victims And Battered Wives in Malaysia. Kajian Malaysia: Journal of Malaysian Studies. Vol III, No. 2, December.
Jones, Gavin. W 1994. Marriage and Divorce in Islamic Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Note: Contains a great deal of empirical data about marriage, education, employment, etc.
Maznah Mohamad and Wong Soak Koon, eds. 1994. Feminism: Malaysian Critique and Experience. (Special Edition of Kajian Malaysia: Journal of Malaysian Studies, Vol. XII, No. 1 and 2, June/December, 1994).
Note: Seems to be the best collection in terms of the incorporation of Islam into the study of feminism. Most useful articles: Syed Farid Alatas's "The Status of Feminist Theory in Malaysia" (25-46) which calls for an "indigenizing" of feminist theory in Malaysia and Maznah Mohammad's "Post-Structuralism, Power, and Third World Feminism" (119-143) which also calls for a Malaysian, within the context of feminists from Algeria, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and other Islamic countries. Text also contains many useful bibliographies.
Narl, Nil Ufer 1991. Unveiling the Fundamentalist Woman: A Case Study of University Students in Malaysia. Istanbul: Isis Press.
Some New Straits Times Articles:
June 6, 1996 "Model Projects for Rural Revival" about Jordan, by Muharyani Othman. (pg?).
July 27, 1995: "Muslim Women Rally to a Cause" about Jordan, by Muharyani Othman. (pg?).
April 13, 1995: Report on Conference "Women at the Crossroads of Change" with quotes from Jamilah Ariffin and Wazir Jahan Karim. (pg?)
Jan 18, 1990: "Time to Assert Women's Presence in Islam," by Muharyani Othman, p. 4.
January 8, 1990. "Re-examining the Roles of Muslim Women," by Muharyani Othman, p. 2.
Ong, Aihwa 1990. "State vs Islam: Malay Families, Women's Bodies, and the Body Politic in Malaysia." American Ethnologist Vol. 17, No. 2 (May) 258.
Othman, Norani 1994. Shari'a L:aw and the Modern nation State: A Malaysian Symposium. Kuala Lumpur: SIS Forum (Malaysia), Berhad.
Reddy, Rita 1992. A Handbook of Law for Malaysian Women. Petaling jaya: Fajar Bakti.
Note: includes bibliographical references and index.
Salleh, Khalijah Mohd 1994. Women in Development. Kuala Lumpur: Institut Kajian Dasar.
Shaheed, F. 1994. "Controlled or Autonomous: Identity and the Experience of the Network, Women Living under Muslim Laws." Signs Vol. 19, No. 4 (summer) 997-1019.
Sharifah Zaleka Syed Hassan, 1986. "Women, Divorce, and Islam in Kedah." Sojourn 1,2 (183-198).
Siraj, Mehrun 1994. "Development Trends in the Malaysian Legal System: Impact on Women's Position and Status." in Jamilah Ariffin, ed. Readings on Women and Development in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Populations Studies Unit, University of Malaya.
___________ 1993. Women under Syariah Law in Malaysia. (ed, Wazir Jahan Karim?). Penang: Women and Human Resources Studies Unit, School of Social Sciences, University Sains Malaysia.
Stivens, Maila, et al 1994. Malay Peasant Women and the Land. London: Zed Books, Ltd.
--Raises issues of Islam and inheritance but does not address these issues centrally. Useful empirical data here for future theorizing.
Wazir Jahan Karim 1995. "Male" and "Female" in Developing Southeast Asia. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
_______________ 1992. Women and Culture: Between Malay Adat and Islam. Boulder: Westview Press.
Note: Chapter 6 (163-217) provides useful background material and leads up into the present.